Insights and resources to support better data analysis in education
By Sheik Abdul Malik
Mastering the art of academic writing can involve many years of practice for a student to fully understand the audience they are writing for. This can be especially true of international students who may face additional language barriers . Within academia, there are conflicting opinions on the most effective ways that a student can best understand the needs of the reader with some researchers  believing that it is through the intense study of the needs of the reader that will allow students to fully appreciate who will be receiving their words. Others have suggested it is through the writing process that the academic reader is constructed by the student . However, an interesting gap in the literature was noticed by a researcher at Newcastle University . There are few studies which attempt to address how the academic reader is invoked when students are putting forward their work for review which is typically a collaborative process between the student and their assessor. Leyland 2021 was interested in understanding how the academic reader is used as a pedagogical tool  and utilised Conversation Analysis and Membership Categorisation Analysis to determine how the reader is constructed through tutorials where international students are advised by writing tutors based in the UK. Several questions were attempted to be answered through this study published in Linguistics and Education including “When and why do writing tutors make explicit reference to ‘the reader’ during advice giving sessions?”  among others.
In the past the study of advice-giving has been primarily based in fields which focus on the delivery of difficult news or sensitive subjects  however, here it has been employed as a tool to invoke the academic reader, which has been identified as a crucial element of the writing process since the 1930s.
Through a total of 21 recorded interactions within academic writing tutorials from 2015-2016 with 19 international students at a UK-based university, almost 8 hours of data was obtained. The cohort of students comprised 68% from China with the remainder from the Middle East, Asia and countries in Europe and each student had the ability to attend a 25-minute session with one of three tutors each week. From the recordings it was apparent that there were numerous instances where the writers were able to demonstrate their comprehension of the academic reader as well as their invocation of it during the advice-giving tutorial sessions. There were instances where there was some confusion about the needs of the academic reader, but these were resolved by the tutors leading the interactions.
Departing from previous studies where the focus had been the academic reader as a product of the writing process, Leyland 2021, adopted a methodological approach that centered on the writing tutor and how they utilise the reader as a pedagogical device.
Conversational Analysis (CA) is a particularly powerful approach to investigating social interactions. Similarly, Membership Categorisation Analysation (MCA) is another sociological technique focused on how members of a specific group perform actions through categorisation practices . The uniqueness of this study was its ability to make use of in-person one-to-one sessions between tutors and international students which resulted in the students purporting to understand how to better write to meet the needs of the academic reader.
A more general criticism has been that as writing tutors lack subject-specific knowledge e.g., in subjects such as Science and Engineering may hinder the advice-giving process and impede the students ability to understand generalist comments on their writing for a specific academic reader . However, Leyland 2021, countered this by suggesting that it actually may be the generalist advice and instructions that may lead to greater understanding by students in contrast to discipline-specific feedback.
Developing a writing style that puts the academic reader’s needs first can be challenging, particularly for international students for whom English is not their native language. However, the results from this study uncovered those advice-giving practices that invoke the reader will often lead to increased demonstrations of understanding from the student. By working with tutors, they are able to provide broad feedback and advice, this helps students to invoke the reader and helps international students develop new writing styles. This paper has built upon the authors previous work in both 2016 and 2020, however further work could be conducted into this fascinating area of linguistics to uncover more about the use of pedagogical tools within the development of academic writing, which hopefully, will lead to improvements to the writing skills of the international student community.
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[Source Paper]    Christopher Leyland,
The interactional construction of the academic reader in writing tutorials for international students: An advice-giving resource,
Linguistics and Education,
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